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Introduction

The 20th century was the stage for some of the greatest in history. Except for Impressionism, it witnessed all the influential movements of (modernism), plus the more fragmented styles of (postmodernism). From the most vivid colourism (Fauvism, Expressionism) to artists revolutionary intellectual painting (Cubism, Constructivism) and political art, (Entartete Kunst, Socialist Realism), the period gave rise to a wealth of schools, theories and differing aesthetics. Although the number of abstract painters increased substantially from the late 1900s onwards - in the form of Cubists, Suprematists, the De Stijl movement, Abstract Expressionism and the Minimalists - figurative artists continued to develop new techniques and methods. Mural painting enjoyed a Renaissance in Mexico; urban and social scenery were central to the Ashcan School, the Social Realists, Precisionists and Graffiti artists; while the Surrealists, the London School and the Photorealists all sought to express their own form of figuration. And of course there were the anti-art Dadaists to challenge all conventional aesthetics!

List of 20th Century Painters

Here is a quick reference guide to the most famous painters of the period. A few individuals are listed under more than one style.

Expressionist Painters

FAUVES (1905-1907)
(1869-1954)
Founder of Fauvism and the leading colourist in modern art.
(1875-1947)
Specialized in watery landscapes of River Seine, ports etc. Impressionist style.
(1876-1958)
Self-taught colourist painter, influenced by Van Gogh and later Cezanne.
(1877-1953)
French Impressionist/Fauvist painter noted for his colourism & mural paintings.
(1877-1968)
Dutch Fauvist, member of Dresden Die Brucke expressionist group, portraitist.
(1880-1954)
Member of Ecole de Paris, friend of like Matisse, De Vlaminck.
(1879-1949)
Le Havre artist with loose, highly coloured style. Fauvism was his peak.
Georges Braque (1882-1963)
See listing under Cubism.
Louis Valtat (1869-1952)
Precursor of Fauvism, and explored the use of colour pigments long after.
(1874-1949)
Friend of Matisse & Camoin, noted for landscapes, still lifes and nudes.
Jean Puy (1876-1960)
Exhibited at the original 1905 Salon d'Automne Fauves Show.
(1879-1964)
Fauvist friend of Matisse from Moreau's class at Ecole des Beaux Arts.

DIE BRUCKE GROUP (1905-13) (The Bridge)
(1880-1938)
Leader of Die Brucke, a group inspired by violent forms and Primitive art.
(1884-1976)
Vivid colourist, noted for his woodcuts, landscapes and portrait art.
(1883-1970)
Founding member of Die Brucke, noted for landscapes, nudes and woodcuts.
(1867-1956)
Painter, printmaker (woodcuts) whose works exemplify German Expressionism.
(1874-1930)
Close friend of Heckel, noted for his female nudes in landscape settings.
(1881-1955)
Founding member of Berlin's Neue Sezession, influenced by Fauves.

DER BLAUE REITER GROUP (1911-14) (Blue Rider)
(1866-1944)
Russian colourist & abstract painter, theorist, founder of Der Blaue Reiter.
(1864-1941)
The "Russian Matisse"; combined elements of icon painting and colourism.
(1880-1916)
German painter, explored expressive values of colour, inspired by Orphism.
(1879-1940)
Fantasy Expressionist famous for his vivid watercolours. Later a Surrealist.
(1877-1962)
German landscape painter and engraver; Kandinsky's partner.
(1887-1914).
Influenced by Delaunay; noted for his peaceful expressionist art.

DIE NEUE SACHLICHKEIT (New Objectivity) (1920s)
(1891-1969)
Powerful anti-war painter, satirized the corruption of Weimar Germany.
(1893-1959)
Berlin Dadaist, expressionist painter, member of Neue Sachlichkeit.
Christian Schad (1894-1982)
Zurich Dadaist, noted for his photograms, Schadographs, portraits, nudes.
(1884-1950)
Painter, printmaker; famous for his expressionist self-portraits and triptychs.
Conrad Felixmuller (1897-1977)
Berlin political painter, exhibited with Sturm Gallery.
Rudolph Schlichter (1890-1955)
Best known for his portrayals of Berlin street life, including portraits.
Albert Carel Willink (1900-83)
Dutch expressionist, known for his portraiture, and his subject paintings.

FRANCE
(1866-1924)
Russian set/costume designer for and the Ballets Russes.
(1870-1960)
Theatrical costume designer and set painter for the Ballets Russes.
(1871-1957)
Czech-born painter, pioneer of abstract expressionism; influenced Delaunay.
(1871-1958)
Painter, stained glass artist, known for his sombre but glowing colours.
Pablo Picasso (1881-1973)
See his listing under Cubism. Leader of Ecole de Paris.
(1884-1920)
Expressionist portrait painter, famous for his primitivist forms.
(1887-1985)
Prolific, versatile Jewish-Russian painter, lithographer, stained glass artist.
(1893-1943)
Jewish-Russian expressionist painter, noted for figure painting.

Note: For an explanation of some of the great works by painters of the Ecole de Paris, please see: (1800-2000).

AUSTRIA
(1886-1980)
Viennese Expressionist portrait artist and landscape painter.
(1890-1918)
Genius at graphic art, specialized in disturbingly powerful nudes.
BRITAIN
(1887-1976)
English genre-painter and urban cityscape artist noted for "matchstick men".
BELGIUM
Constant Permeke (1886-1952)
One of the leading expressionist painters in Belgium.
Gustave de Smet (1877-1943)
Best known for his rural paintings reminiscent of Chagall.
EASTERN EUROPE
Emil Filla (1882-1953)
Czech painter, noted for his still lifes and Cubist-Expressionism.
Bela Czobel (1883-1976)
Hungarian painter, Nagybanya school, leader of avant-garde group The Eight.

Realist Painters

ASHCAN SCHOOL NEW YORK (1900-1915)
Arthur B. Davies (1862-1928)
Leader organizer of the 1913 Armory Show and a member of The Eight.
William J Glackens (1870-1938)
American realist painter, illustrator, co-founder of The Eight.
(1865-1929)
Modern painter, influenced by Eakins, he led The Eight and the Ashcan School.
Ernest Lawson (1873-1939)
Canadian-American landscape painter and member of The Eight.
George Luks (1867-1933)
American realist painter, noted for genre paintings of urban subjects.
Maurice Prendergast (1858-1924)
American Post-Impressionist artist noted for mosaic-like style of painting.
Everett Shinn (1876-1953)
Youngest member of The Eight, noted for paintings of the theatre and NYC.
John Sloan (1871-1951)
Famous for his neighborhood genre painting, captured through his window.
(1882-1925)
Ashcan school urban painter noted for sports pictures, A Stag at Sharkey's.
Jerome Myers (1867-1940)
Specialized in painting immigrant life on New York's lower East Side.

MEXICAN MURAL PAINTING REVIVAL (c.1920-40)
(1883-1949)
Classically trained Mexican wall painter.
(1886-1957)
Greatest Mexican fresco mural painter, husband of Frida Kahlo.
(1896-1974)
The most radical of the Mexican fresco muralists.

SOCIALIST REALIST PAINTERS (c.1928-80)
Boris Mikhailovich Kustodiev (1878-1927)
Influenced by French Impressionism.
Isaak Israilevich Brodsky (1884-1939)
History paintings on Revolution and life of Lenin.
Georgy Georgievich Ryazhsky (1895-1952)
Painted inspirational pictures for the new 'Soviet' man.
Alexander Deineka (1899-1969)
Noted for Building New Factories (1926) Tretyakov Gallery Moscow.
Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin (1878-1939)
His works include Death of a Commissar (1928) State Museum, St Petersburg.
Alexander Gerasimov (1881-1963)
History paintings like, Lenin on the Tribune (1930) Lenin Museum Moscow.
Semyon Chuikov (1902-80)
Landscapes: Daughter of Soviet Kirgizia (1948) Hermitage St Petersburg.
Arkady Plastov (1893-1972)
Noted for Threshing on Collective Farm (1949) Museum of Art Kiev.
Komar & Melamid (Vitaly Komar b.1943; Aleksander Melamid b.1945)
Contemporary realist duo famous for Socialist Realism with twist. Two of the best history painters of the Russian school.

SOCIAL REALISTS (1930-45)
(1898-1969)
Noted for social realist frescoes, gouache panel paintings, illustrations.
Reginald Marsh (1898-1954)
Famous for his pictures of tawdry aspects of Coney Island, Bowery district.
Moses Soyer (1899-1974) and Raphael Soyer (1899-1987)
Russian-born artist twins, emigrated to America 1913, noted for Depression era pictures of working people.
William Gropper (1897-1977)
Communist cartoonist, noted for social realist drawings, caricatures.
Isabel Bishop (1902-88)
Noted for pictures of New York urban steet life, working class women.
Renato Guttuso (1912-87)
Italy's leading exponent of Social Realism, famous for Crucifixion (1941).
AMERICAN SCENE PAINTING (Regionalism) (c.1925-45)
(1882-1967)
American realist, one of the best genre painters of the 20th century.
(1889-1975)
Realist artist, exponent of American Scene Painting and Regionalism.
(1892-1942)
Realist painter from Iowa, noted for his mid-West landscapes and portraits.
(1892-1964)
Best known for his avant-garde American Scene paintings.
(1894-1978)
American Saturday Evening Post illustrator, subject-painter and portraitist.
Grandma Moses (Anna Mary Robertson) (1899-1974)
Noted for lovingly observed detail of her "old-timey" farm scenes.
Charles Burchfield (1893-1967)
Ohio watercolourist, noted for bleak small-town vernacular architecture.
Paul Sample (1896-1974)
Vermont artist associated with Regionalism.
John Steuart Curry (1897-1946)
Kansas painter, muralist with anecdotal style; depicted the violence of nature.
Peter Hurd (1904-84)
New Mexico-based painter of the Regionalist movement.
(1917-2009)
Tempera painter and watercolourist from Pennsylvania.

PHOTOREALISM - SUPERREALISM (1960s onwards)
(b.1932)
US superrealist painter of urban architecture.
(b.1940)
Leader of American photorealism style, noted for gigantic self-portraits.
Audrey Flack (b.1931)
Noted for her vanitas still lifes.
Howard Kanovitz (1929-2009)
His works have the illusion of using figurative cut-outs
Ralph Goings (b.1928)
Achieved a crystal clear style of illusionism by using an airbrush.
Robert Bechtle (b.1932)
Large scale paintings of suburban society.
Robert Cottingham (b.1935)
Best known for close-ups of advertising and shop signs.
David Parrish (b.1939)
Painted motorbikes from slide-photos.
(b.1940)
Leading Irish hyperrealist painter.
Don Eddy (b.1944)
Specializes in car bodies and shop windows.

Abstract Painters

CUBISM (1908-14)
(1882-1963)
Co-founder of Analytical and Synthetic Cubism.
(1881-1973)
Co-founder of Cubism, leading expressionist-style artist of 20th century.
(1887-1927)
One of the great and the movement's leading theorist.
(1881-1955)
Fourth Cubist, socialist painter, muralist, stained glass and textile artist.
(1881-1953)
French Cubist, important theoretician, founding member of Section d'Or group.
Emil Filla (1882-1953)
Leading Czech Cubist painter.
(1883-1957)
Cubist painter, co-author of Du Cubisme, founder member of Section d'Or.
Roger de la Fresnaye (1885-1925)
Member of Section d'Or, Puteaux Group, noted for decorative Cubism.
(1885-1962)
Cubist painter, sculptor, teacher, co-founder of Nouvelle Revue Francaise.
(1871-1956)
German-American Cubist painter, illustrator.
(1877-1943)
American painter, best known for abstract Cubist/Expressionist war portraits.
Louis Marcoussis (Ludwig Markus) (1878-1941)
Polish-French painter, printmaker, member of Cubist avant-garde in Paris.

FUTURISM (1909-1914)
(1871-1958)
Turin-born Futurist leader, noted for Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash.
(1881-1966)
See listing under Metaphysical Painting.
Gino Severini (1883-1966)
Leading Futurist, associated with Neo-Classicism.
Filippo Tommaso Marinetti (1876-1944)
Author of the Futurist Manifesto (1908).
(1882-1967)
Father of Russian Futurism.

ORPHISM (Orphic Cubism) (1910-13)
(1885-1941)
Abstract painter, founder of Orphism (Orphic Cubism) or Simultanism.
Sonia Delaunay-Terk (1885-1979)
Applied technique to textiles, clothes, bookbinding as well as painting.

RAYONISM (1912-14)
(1881-1962)
Painter, noted for Neo-Primitivism, Cubo-Futurism/Rayonism, ballet-set design.
(1881-1964)
Russian painter, set designer, inventor of Rayonism, husband of Goncharova.

SYNCHROMISM (1913-18)
Morgan Russell (1883-1953)
American abstract painter, exhibited Synchromist paintings at Armory Show.
Stanton MacDonald-Wright (1890-1973)
Co-founder of Synchromism & Forum Exhibition of American Modernists, NYC.

SUPREMATISM (1913-18)
(1878-1935)
Founder of abstract style known as Suprematism.
(1890-1941)
Abstract painter, architect, designer, book illustrator and poster artist.
NOTE: The Supremus group included: Liubov Popova, Aleksandra Ekster, Nadezhda Udaltsova, Ivan Kliun, Olga Rozanova, Nina Genke, Ivan Puni, Ksenia Boguslavskaya and others who at this time worked in Verbovka Village Folk Centre.

VORTICISM (c.1914-15)
(1882-1957)
Founder of Vorticism, Group X, Rebel Art Centre.
CRW Nevinson (1889-1946)
Noted for paintings of killing machines and robotic soldiers.
David Bomberg (1890-1957)
Famous Slade School of Art graduate.

CONSTRUCTIVISM (c.1914-32)
(1885-1953)
Founder of Constructivism, designed Monument to the Third International.
(1889-1924)
Suprematist and Constructivist artist, influenced by Cubo-Futurism.
(1890-1941)
Abstract painter, architect, designer, book illustrator and poster artist.
Alexander Rodchenko (1891-1956)
Painter, graphic designer, photomontage artist, married to Varvara Stepanova.
Varvara Stepanova (1894-1958)
Constructivist artist, theatre and textile designer.
(1895-1946)
Experimental artist/designer, noted for kinetic art, Bauhaus teaching.

DE STIJL/NEO-PLASTICISM/ELEMENTARISM (1917-40)
(1872-1944)
Member of De Stijl movement. One of the pioneer.
(1883-1931)
Abstract artist; painter, designer. Leading member of Dutch De Stijl group.
Auguste Herbin (1882-1960)
Founder member of Abstraction-Creation; noted for coloured geometric works.
Jean Helion (1904-87)
Best-known for three-dimensional, Constructivist-style geometric forms.
Max Bill (1908-94)
Noted for his geometric concrete art, flat colours.
Otto Freundlich (1878-1943)
Cubist painter, best known for geometric, highly coloured abstract pictures.

Painters in the Inter-War Years (1919-39)

METAPHYSICAL PAINTING (Pittura Metafisica) (c.1913-20)
(1888-1978)
Italian artist, co-inventor with Carlo Carra of Pittura Metafisica.
(1890-1964)
Minimalist still life painter; one of the best still life painters of the modern era.
Carlo Carra (1881-1966)
Ex-Futurist, adopted figurative style of art, loaded with mystery.

DADA PAINTERS (1916-1924)
(1879-1953)
Energetic Cubist founder of Paris Dada, member of Surrealism.
(1887-1968)
Pioneer of Dada and Object Art or Junk Art, noted for 'readymades'.
(1887-1948)
German Dada artist noted for his "Merz" collage art, multi-media "Merzbau".
(1887-1966)
French painter/sculptor; co-founder of Dada Zurich 1916.
Hans Richter (1888-1976)
German painter, sculptor, film-maker; member of Zurich Dada.
(1886-1971)
Czech painter, co-founder of Berlin Dada 1918, created photomontage.
(Helmut Herzfelde) (1891-1968)
Berlin Dadaist famous for militant anti-Nazi art, communist photomontages.

PRECISIONISM & ART DECO (1920s)
(1883-1935)
Leading Precisionist of the 1920s and 1930s; also invented poster-portraits.
Charles Sheeler (1883-1965)
Romantic painter, master photographer, snapped Ford's River Rouge car plant.
(1887-1986)
Painted sharp urban landscapes, as well as flowers; wife of Alfred Stieglitz.
George Ault (1891-1948)
Best known for his night scenes of industry and industrial architecture.
(Tamara Gorska) (1898-1980)
Art Deco-style portraitist.
Ralston Crawford (1906-78)
Best known for sharp portrayals of factories, bridges, shipyards.
Niles Spencer (1893-1952)
Noted for Precisionist-style urban landscapes, but with looser brushwork.

SURREALIST PAINTERS (1924 onwards)
(1896-1966)
Writer and chief theoretician and spokesman of the Surrealism movement.
(1889-1946)
Leader of English surrealism; War Artist, watercolourist, book illustrator.
(1890-1976)
Dada artist, active in Paris; noted for Surrealist photography & junk art.
(1891-1976)
Ex-Dada artist, painter, sculptor, inventor of frottage and decalcomania.
(1893-1983)
Spanish surrealist painter: ceramicist, printmaker and stained glass artist.
(1896-1987)
Skilled draftsman, famous for his use of automatism and automatic drawing.
(1897-1994)
Surrealist painter, famous for his Magic Realism and female nudes.
(1898-1967)
Belgian classical painter, member of Magic Realism and Surrealism movements.
(1900-55)
French abstract painter, married to the American Surrealist Kay Sage.
Hans Bellmer (1902-75)
Polish-French Surrealist, best known for disturbing doll constructions.
(1904-89)
Spanish painter, one of the most famous.
Edward Burra (1905-76)
British Surrealist who depicted the dreamland of the subconscious.
(1907-1954)
Mexican surrealist self portraitist, wife of Diego Rivera.
(Balthazar Klossowski de Rola) (1908-2001)
Surrealist-style figurative painter, best known for pictures of young girls.
Carel Weight (1908-97)
Introduces psychological tension into his works, like De Chirico/Magritte.
(1909-92)
The world's most successful post-war contemporary artist, noted for his grotesque imagery.
(1920-2013)
Canada's foremost exponent of Magic Realism.
Paula Rego (b.1935)
Famous for mysterious surreal, sinister pictures reminiscent of De Chirico.

Post-War Painters (1945-60)

ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM (GESTURALISM)
(1880-1966)
German-American expressionist, art teacher; pioneer of action painting.
(1903-74)
Abstract Surrealist painter, noted for his Pictographs, Landscapes, Bursts.
(1904-48)
Last surrealist, first abstract expressionist; influenced De Kooning.
(1904-97)
Noted for rough gesturalist brushwork and semi-abstract "Woman" series.
(1908-84)
Wife of Jackson Pollock; her drip-paintings predated his 'action-painting'.
(1910-1962)
Famous for gestural action-painting & calligraphic black-and-white pictures.
(1912-56)
Founder of 'action-painting', variant of Abstract Expressionism in USA.
William Baziotes (1912-63)
Decorative biomorphic abstracts with soft misty brushwork and tonal harmony.
(1915-91)
Painter, collagist, lithographer, famous for Elegy to the Spanish Republic.
Richard Diebenkorn (1922-93)
Californian angst-free expressionist; made colourful, abstract landscapes.
Joan Mitchell (1926-92)
Active in Paris, her abstract works unusually drew inspiration from nature.

ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM (COLOUR FIELD PAINTING)
(1903-70)
Latvian-American abstract painter, co-founder of Colour Field painting.
(1904-1980)
American artist, co-founder with Rothko/Newman of Colour Field painting.
(1905-70)
Colour Field Painter. Pioneer influence on Post-Painterly Abstraction.
(1888-1976)
Bauhaus teacher, painter noted for Homage to the Square colourist series.

CALLIGRAPHIC ABSTRACTION
(1890-1976)
Noted for his White Writing, a form of calligraphic gesturalism; tachisme art.
(1913-80)
Inventor of 'Abstract Impressionism'; later switched to Neo-Expressionism.
(1928-2011)
Active in Italy, made graffiti-style, calligraphic-like drawings/paintings.

POST-PAINTERLY ABSTRACTION
Morris Louis (1912-62)
Noted for his paint-pouring techniques focusing on light and colour.
Jules Olitski (1922-2007)
Leading PPA member; stained and sprayed his canvases with acrylic paint.
(b.1928)
Founder of colour stain painting, a variant of drip-painting.
(b.1945)
Renowned for large-scale elemental shapes.

HARD EDGE & SHAPED CANVAS
(b.1924)
Associated with Hard Edge Painting, Minimalism & Post-Painterly Abstraction.
(b.1936)
Minimalist, Hard-Edge painter, noted for his shaped canvases and printmaking.
(b.1923)
Main concern has been the internal relationship between colour and form.

ART INFORMEL PAINTERS (European Abstract Expressionism)
(1901-1985)
French experimental painter, portraitist, Art Brut collector.
Hans Hartung (1904-89)
Art Informel pioneer, noted for his gesturalism and ripped canvases.
(1908-92)
Portuguese-French abstract expressionist artist.
: Alfred Otto Wolfgang Schulze (1913-51)
German painter, member of Art Informel, and Tachisme.
(b.1919)
French Art Informel painter, leading exponent of Tachisme.
(1921-2012)
Pioneer of Lyrical Abstraction style of French abstract art.
(1923-2002)
Canadian painter known for his all-over gestural abstracts.
Lucio Fontana (1899-1968)
Best-known for slashed canvases.
Alberto Burri (1915-95)
Matter painter, famous for pretty works using sacking and/or collage.
(1923-2012)
Spanish abstract artist; mixed media Matter painting.

LYRICAL ABSTRACTION (European)
Maurice Esteve (1904-2001)
Lyrical abstraction painting, with interlocking shapes, luminous colour.
Jean Bazaine (1904-2001)
Lyrical abstractionist painter noted for free style.
Alfred Manessier (1911-93)
Lyrical abstractionist painter, stained glass artist; mystical abstracts.
(1914-1955)
Russian-French abstract painter noted for his colourism & Lyrical Abstraction.
(1920-99)
Abstract paintings saturated with blots of brilliant colour.
(1923-1994)
American painter, member of Tachisme & Lyrical Abstraction movements.

COBRA GROUP
(1914-73)
Danish gesturalist painter, founder of COBRA group, linked to Art Informel.
(1921-2006)
Dutch abstract painter, gesturalist; member of COBRA & Art Informel.
Carl-Henning Pedersen (1913-2007)
Danish founder of COBRA, noted for pictures of palaces, princesses, demons.
Corneille (Corneille Beverloo) (b.1922)
Famous for child-like COBRA imagery, brilliant colour, vigorous brushwork.
Pierre Alechinsky (b.1927)
Belgian COBRA member, noted for calligraphic abstract paintings.

AUSTRALIAN SCHOOL (Mid-20th Century)
(1912-81)
Famous melancholic-style Australian expressionist/surrealist 'bush painter'.
(1917-92)
Celebrated Australian painter, noted for pictures of bushranger Ned Kelly.

NEO-DADA - NOUVEAU REALISME (1953-65)
(1925-2008)
Noted for his "Combines", collages, assemblages and conceptualism.
(b.1930)
Painter, sculptor, lithographer, collage & multi-media artist; Neo-Dada.
Larry Rivers (1923-2002)
De Kooning + collage + Pop Art.
(1928-62)
Pioneer of contemporary performance art, patented the colour International Klein Blue (IKB) and founded Anthropometry painting. Refreshingly original, in the Dada tradition, and one of the first authentic. For details about his activities, see: (1956-62).
Jiro Yoshihara (1905-72)
Abstract painter, founder of radical, Dadaist Japanese Gutai Group in Osaka.

OP-ART - KINETIC ART (1950s, 1960s)
(1906-1997)
Hungarian painter, graphic designer; founder of Op-Art, explored Kineticism.
(b.1931)
Leader of British Op-Art movement, a form of geometric abstract art.
Richard Anuszkiewicz (b.1930)
Leading US Optical artist, focuses on radiating expanses of lines.
Peter Sedgley (b.1930)
British Op artist; highly inventive use of lights and colours.
Nicholas Schoffer (1912-80)
Theorist of Kinetic Art, spatiodynamism, luminodynamism, chronodynamism.
Jesus Raphael Soto (1923-2005)
Used coloured dots to explore optical reflectivity of geometric forms.
Francois Morellet (b.1926)
Known for mathematical concrete art, studied optics and movement.

POP ART (1960s onwards)
(1923-97)
Creator of comic-strip style, benday dot paintings, like "Wham!"
(1928-87)
Founder of Pop-Art movement, noted for screenprints & popular imagery.
(b.1928)
Uses digits, emblems and words as central motifs.
(b.1937)
English Pop artist, noted for portraits, etchings and photo-collages.
RB Kitaj (1932-2007)
American Pop artist active in England.
Peter Blake (b.1932)
Best known for paintings of popular culture in a naive style.
(b.1933)
Billboard painter who became an American Pop artist.
(b.1935)
Abstract expressionist canvases with attachments of a personal connection.
(b.1937)
Key figure in Californian Pop Art movement in the 1960s.
Sigmar Polke (b.1941)
German painter, made inventive, cool, humorous Contemporary Pop Art.

MINIMALISTS (1960s, 1970s)
(1912-2004)
American Minimalist painter; hand-drawn pencil grids on gesso, acrylics/oils.
(1913-67)
Influenced by Josef Albers, he turned to minimalist monochromatic works.
Robert Ryman (b.1930)
Noted for impastoed canvases with geometric areas of colour.
(b.1931)
Minimalist/ expressionist painter, noted for 1980s Firestorm series.

GRAFFITI PAINTERS (1970s onwards)
(1954-92)
AIDS activist, collage artist and street painter.
(1960-88)
New York graffiti artist, noted for his urban neo-expressionism.
(b.1973-4)
Postmodernist graffiti stencil painter, street sculptor, installation artist.
(1958-90)
New York graffiti artist, noted for interacting animal/human figures.

LONDON SCHOOL (1970s)
(b.1931)
British semi-abstract portrait painter, noted for heavily impastoed paintings.
Leon Kossoff (b.1926)
Jewish-British expressionist painter of London scenes.
RB Kitaj (1932-2007)
See listing under Pop Art.
Gillian Ayres (b.1930)
Associated with Tachiste movement, for her emotional colour abstracts.
Howard Hodgkin (b.1932)
Small abstracts with sumptuous colours.

NEO-EXPRESSIONISM (1979 onwards)
(b.1932)
Noted for his abstracts and his photo-based paintings.
(b.1938)
German Neo-Expressionist painter, famous for his upside down paintings.
(b.1945)
Creates large-scale, heavily textured paintings on Holocaust & German history.
Jorg Immendorf (b.1945)
Paints genre paintings populated by military, political, deviant figures.
Rainer Fetting (b.1949)
Founder of Neue Wilden, noted for postmodernist expressionist works.

YOUNG BRITISH ARTISTS (YBAs) (1990s)
(b.1963)
British postmodernist artist, noted for shocking feminist pictures.
(b.1965)
Known for his coloured spot paintings.
(b.1970)
Famous for unsentimental obese nudes.
Peter Davies (b.1970)
Noted for his geometric abstract paintings, populated with minute motifs.
Chris Ofili (b.1968)
Turner Prize Winner; produces highly coloured contemporary ethnic paintings.

20TH CENTURY FIGURATIVE PAINTERS
(1903-80)
Noted for his portraits, religious painting and tapestry art.
(1922-2011)
British realist - one of the best portrait artists of the modern era.
(b.1932)
Columbian artist, leading South American painter noted for obese figures.
(b.1951)
Populist British genre-painter, noted for The Singing Butler.

Contemporary Styles
(b.1955)
Leading exponent of word painting and text-based art.

CONTEMPORARY CHINESE PAINTERS
Zhang Xiaogang (b.1958)
One of the leaders of the painting movement.
Zeng Fanzhi (b.1964)
Wuhan painter noted for his figure painting, portraits.
Yue Minjun (b.1962)
Cynical Realist painter noted for humorous clown-like figures.
Liu Xiaodong (b.1963)
Contemporary Chinese painter from Liaoning.
Yan Pei-Ming (b.1960)
Shanghai portrait painter.
Chen Yifei (b.1946)
Zhejing contemporary artist.
Fang Lijun (b.1963)
Cynical Realist painter from Hebei, noted for bald-headed figures.
Zhou Chunya (b.1955)
Sichuan portrait artist.

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