Satyajit Ray (Bengali: ( ); 2 May 1921 – 23 April 1992) was an Indian filmmaker, screenwriter, graphic artist, music composer and author, widely regarded as one of the greatest filmmakers of the 20th century. Ray was born in the city of, in a family which was prominent in the field of arts and literature. Starting his career as a commercial artist, Ray was drawn into after meeting French filmmaker and viewing 's film (1948) during a visit to London.
Ray directed 36 films, including feature films, documentaries and. He was also a fiction writer, publisher, illustrator, calligrapher, music composer, graphic designer and film critic. He authored several short stories and novels, meant primarily for young children and teenagers., the sleuth, and, the scientist in his science fiction stories, are popular fictional characters created by him. He was awarded an honorary degree by.
Ray's first film, (1955), won eleven international prizes, including the inaugural Best Human Document award at the. This film, along with (1956) and (The World of Apu) (1959), form. Ray did the, casting,, and editing, and designed his own credit titles and publicity material. Ray received many in his career, including 32 Indian, a, a, 2, a number of additional awards at international film festivals and award ceremonies, and an in 1992. The how to smile in photographs Government of India honored him with the, its highest civilian award, in 1992. Ray had received all the honourable Indian awards, including Bharat Ratna and Padma Awards.
Early life and backgroundSatyajit Ray as a child
Satyajit Ray's ancestry can be traced back for at least ten generations. Ray's grandfather, was a writer, illustrator, philosopher, publisher, and a leader of the, a religious and social movement in nineteenth century. He also set up a printing press by the name of, which formed a crucial backdrop to Satyajit's life., Upendrakishore's son and father of Satyajit, was a pioneering writer of () and children's literature, an illustrator and a critic. Ray was born to Sukumar and Suprabha Ray in Darbhanga at his maternal Grandfather’s (A.N.Chakravarti) house who was posted as then Dy.Magistrate in Darbhanga Bihar.Mr.Chakravarti sent a telegraph to Sukumar Ray on 2/5/21 and wrote “Khoka Born last night.All Well”
Satyajit Ray's family had acquired the name 'Ray'(originally 'Rai') from the Mughals. Although they were, the Rays were 'Vaishnavas' (worshippers of Vishnu) as against majority who were 'Shaktos' (worshippers of the Shakti).
died when Satyajit was barely three, and the family survived on Suprabha Ray's meager income. Ray studied at, and completed his BA in economics at then affiliated with the (now Kolkata)though his interest was always in fine arts. In 1940, his mother insisted that he studied at the at, founded by. Ray was reluctant due to his love of Calcutta, and the low opinion of the intellectual life at Santiniketan. His mother's persuasion and his respect for Tagore finally convinced him to try. In Santiniketan, Ray came to appreciate. He later admitted that he learned much from the famous painters and. Later he produced a documentary film, The Inner Eye, about Mukherjee. His visits to, and stimulated his admiration for.Sukumar Ray and Suprabha Ray, parents of Satyajit Ray (1914)
In 1943, Ray started work at D.J. Keymer, a British-run advertising agency, as a "junior visualiser," earning eighty a month. Although he liked (graphic design) and he was mostly treated well, there was tension between the British and Indian employees of the firm. The British were better paid, and Ray felt that "the clients were generally stupid." Later, Ray also worked for, a new publishing house started by D. K. Gupta. Gupta asked Ray to create cover designs for books to be published by Signet Press and gave him complete artistic freedom. Ray designed covers for many books, including 's, and, 's, 's , and 's . He worked on a children's version of Pather Panchali, a classic Bengali novel by, renamed as Aam Antir Bhepu (The mango-seed whistle). Designing the cover and illustrating the book, Ray was deeply influenced by the work. He used it as the subject of his first film, and featured his illustrations as shots in his ground-breaking film.
Along with and others, Ray founded the in 1947. They screened many foreign films, many of which Ray watched and seriously studied. He befriended the American stationed in Calcutta during World War II, who kept him informed about the latest American films showing in the city. He came to know a employee, Norman Clare, who shared Ray's passion for films, and western classical music.
In 1949, Ray married, his first cousin and long-time sweetheart. The couple had a son,, who is now a film director. In the same year, French director came to Calcutta to shoot his film. Ray helped him to find locations in the countryside. Ray told Renoir about his idea of filming Pather Panchali, which had long been on his mind, and Renoir encouraged him in the project. In 1950, D.J. Keymer sent Ray to London to work at its headquarters office. During his three months in London, Ray watched 99 films. Among these was the film Ladri di biciclette () (1948) by, which had a profound impact on him. Ray later said that he came out of the theatre determined to become a film-maker.
The Apu years (1950–59)
See also: and
Ray decided to use (1928), the classic of, as the basis for his first film. The semi-autobiographical novel describes the maturation of Apu, a small boy in a Bengal village.
Ray gathered an inexperienced crew, although both his cameraman and art director went on to achieve great acclaim. The cast consisted of mostly amateur actors. He started shooting in late 1952 with his personal savings and hoped to raise more money once he had some passages shot, but did not succeed on his terms. As a result, Ray shot Pather Panchali over three years, an unusually long period, based on when he or his production manager could raise additional funds. He refused funding from sources who wanted a change in script or supervision over production. He also ignored advice from the government to incorporate a happy ending, but he did receive funding that allowed him to complete the film. Ray showed an early film passage to the American director, who was in India scouting locations for. The passage was of the vision which Apu and his sister have of the train running through the countryside, the only sequence which Ray had yet filmed due to his small budget. Huston notified at the (MOMA) that a major talent was on the horizon.
With a loan from the, Ray finally completed the film. It was released in 1955 to great critical and popular success. It earned numerous prizes and had long runs in both India and abroad. In India, the reaction to the film was enthusiastic; wrote that "It is absurd to compare it with any other Indian cinema [...] Pather Panchali is pure cinema." In the United Kingdom, wrote a glowing review of the film. But, the reaction was not uniformly positive. After watching the movie, is reported to have said, "I don't want to see a movie of peasants eating with their hands.", then the most influential critic of, wrote a scathing review of the film. Its American distributor Ed Harrison was worried Crowther's review would dissuade audiences, but the film had an exceptionally long run when released in the United States.
Ray's international career started in earnest after the success of his next film, (The Unvanquished). This film shows the eternal struggle between the ambitions of a young man, Apu, and the mother who loves him. Critics such as and rank it higher than Ray's first film.Aparajito won the at the, bringing Ray considerable acclaim. Before completing The Apu Trilogy, Ray directed and released two other films: the comic (The Philosopher's Stone), and (The Music Room), a film about the decadence of the, considered one of his most important works.
While making Aparajito, Ray had not planned a trilogy, but after he was asked about the idea in Venice, it appealed to him. He finished the last of the trilogy, (The World of Apu) in 1959. Critics and found this to be the supreme achievement of the trilogy. Ray introduced two of his favourite actors, and, in this film. It opens with Apu living in a Calcutta house in near-poverty. He becomes involved in an unusual marriage with Aparna. The scenes of their life together form "one of the cinema's classic affirmative depictions of married life." They suffer tragedy. After Apur Sansar was harshly criticised by a Bengali critic, Ray wrote an article defending it. He rarely responded to critics during his filmmaking career, but also later defended his film Charulata, his personal favourite.
Ray wrote his memoirs during his filming of the Apu Trilogy which has been published as.
Ray's film successes had little influence on his personal life in the years to come. He continued to live with his wife and children in a rented house, with his mother, uncle and other members of his extended family.
From Devi to Charulata (1959–64)at a discussion with Ray for the sounds in Pather Panchali (1955)
During this period, Ray composed films on the period (such as ), a documentary on Tagore, a comic film (Mahapurush) and his first film from an original screenplay (Kanchenjungha). He also made a series of films that, taken together, are considered by critics among the most deeply felt portrayals of Indian women on screen.
Ray followed Apur Sansar with Devi (The Goddess), a film in which he examined the superstitions in society. Sharmila Tagore starred as Doyamoyee, a young wife who is by her father-in-law. Ray was worried that the censor board might block his film, or at least make him re-cut it, but Devi was spared. In 1961, on the insistence of Prime minister, Ray was commissioned to make on, on the occasion of the poet's birth centennial, a tribute to the person who likely most influenced Ray. Due to limited footage of Tagore, Ray faced the challenge of making a film out of mainly static material. He said that it took as much work as three feature films.
In the same year, together with and others, Ray was able to revive, the children's magazine which his grandfather once published. Ray had been saving money for some years to make this possible. A duality in the name (Sandesh means both "news" in Bengali and also a sweet popular dessert) set the tone of the magazine (both educational and entertaining). Ray began to make illustrations for it, as well as to write stories and essays for children. Writing became his major source of income.
In 1962, Ray directed . Based on his first original screenplay, it was his first film in colour. The film tells of an upper-class family spending an afternoon in, a picturesque hill town in West Bengal. They try to arrange the engagement of their youngest daughter to a highly paid engineer educated in London. He had first conceived shooting the film in a large mansion, but later decided to film it in the famous hill town. He used the many shades of light and mist to reflect the tension in the drama. Ray noted that while his script allowed shooting to be possible under any lighting conditions, a commercial film contingent present at the same time in Darjeeling failed to shoot a single scene, as they only wanted to do so in sunshine.
In the sixties, Ray visited Japan and took particular pleasure in meeting the filmmaker, for whom he had very high regard. While at home, he would take an occasional break from the hectic city life by going to places such as Darjeeling or to complete a script in isolation.
In 1964 Ray made (The Lonely Wife); it was the culmination of this period of work, and regarded by many critics as his most accomplished film. Based on "", a short story of Tagore, the film tells of a lonely wife, Charu, in 19th-century Bengal, and her growing feelings for her brother-in-law Amal. Critics have referred to this as Ray's masterpiece. He said the film contained the fewest flaws among his work, and it was his only work which, given a chance, he would make exactly the same way. Charulata won him the Best Director prize at the.'s performance as Charu, and the work of both Subrata Mitra and Bansi Chandragupta in the film, have been highly praised. Other films in this period include (The Big City), (Three Daughters), (The Expedition), (The Coward) and (Holy Man).
New directions (1965–82)A painting of Ray
In the post-Charulata period, Ray took on projects of increasing variety, ranging from fantasy to science fiction to to. Ray also made considerable formal experimentation during this period. He expressed contemporary issues of Indian life, responding to a perceived lack of these issues in his films. The first major film in this period is (The Hero), the story of a screen hero travelling in a train and meeting a young, sympathetic female journalist. Starring and Sharmila Tagore, in the twenty-four hours of the journey, the film explores the inner conflict of the apparently highly successful. In spite of the film's receiving a "Critics prize" at the, it had a generally muted reception.
In 1967, Ray wrote a script for a film to be called, based on his short story "Bankubabur Bandhu" ("Banku Babu's Friend"), which he wrote in 1962 for, the Ray family magazine. was the producer for what was a planned US-India co-production, and and were cast as the leading actors. Ray found that his script had been copyrighted and the fee appropriated by Mike Wilson. Wilson had initially approached Ray through their mutual friend,, to represent him in Hollywood. Wilson copyrighted the script credited to Mike Wilson & Satyajit Ray, although he contributed only one word. Ray later said that he never received a penny for the script. After Brando dropped out of the project, the project tried to replace him with, but Ray became disillusioned and returned to Calcutta. Columbia expressed interest in reviving the project several times in the 1970s and 1980s, but nothing came of it. When was released in 1982, Clarke and Ray saw similarities in the film to his earlier Alien script. Ray claimed that this film plagiarized his script. Ray said that Steven Spielberg's movie "would not have been possible without my script of 'The Alien' being available throughout America in mimeographed copies." Spielberg denied any plagiarism by saying, "I was a kid in high school when this script was circulating in Hollywood." (Spielberg actually graduated high school in 1965 and released his first film in 1968). Besides The Alien, two other unrealised projects that Ray had intended to direct were adaptations of the ancient, the, and 's 1924 novel. In 1969, Ray released what would be commercially the most successful of his films. Based on a children's story written by his grandfather, (The Adventures of Goopy and Bagha), it is a fantasy. Goopy the singer and Bagha the drummer, endowed with three gifts by the King of Ghosts, set out on a fantastic journey. They try to stop an impending war between two neighboring kingdoms. Among his most expensive enterprises, the film project was difficult to finance. Ray abandoned his desire to shoot it in color, as he turned down an offer that would have forced him to cast a certain actor as the lead.
Ray made a film from a novel by the young poet and writer,. Featuring a musical motif structure acclaimed as more complex than Charulata, (Days and Nights in the Forest) traces four urban young men going to the forests for a vacation. They try to leave their daily lives behind. All but one of them become involved in encounters with women, which becomes a deep study of the Indian middle class. According to Robin Wood, "a single sequence [of the film]... would offer material for a short essay".
After Aranyer, Ray addressed contemporary Bengali life. He completed what became known as the : Pratidwandi (1970), (1971), and (1975), three films that were conceived separately but had thematic connections.Pratidwandi (The Adversary) is about an idealist young graduate; if disillusioned at the end of film, he is still uncorrupted. Jana Aranya (The Middleman) showed a young man giving in to the culture of corruption to make a living. Seemabaddha (Company Limited) portrayed an already successful man giving up his morality for further gains. In the first film, Pratidwandi, Ray introduces a new, elliptical narrative style, such as scenes in negative, dream sequences, and abrupt flashbacks. In the 1970s, Ray adapted two of his popular stories as detective films. Though mainly addressed to children and young adults, both (The Golden Fortress) and (The Elephant God) found some critical following.
Ray considered making a film on the but later abandoned the idea. He said that, as a filmmaker, he was more interested in the travails of the refugees and not the politics. In 1977, Ray completed (The Chess Players), a film based on a short story by. It was set in in the state of, a year before the. A commentary on issues related to the colonisation of India by the British, this was Ray's first feature film in a language other than Bengali. It is his most expensive and star-studded film, featuring,,,, and.
In 1980, Ray made a sequel to Goopy Gyne Bagha Byne, a somewhat political (Kingdom of Diamonds). The kingdom of the evil Diamond King, or Hirok Raj, is an allusion to India during 's. Along with his acclaimed short film (Pikoo's Diary) and hour-long film, Sadgati, this was the culmination of his work in this period.
The last phase (1983–92)
In 1983, while working on (Home and the World), Ray suffered a heart attack; it would severely limit his productivity in the remaining 9 years of his life. Ghare Baire was completed in 1984 with the help of Ray's son (who operated the camera from then on) because of his health condition. He had wanted to film this on the dangers of fervent nationalism for a long time, and wrote a first draft of a script for it in the 1940s. In spite of rough patches due to Ray's illness, the film did receive some critical acclaim. It had the first kiss fully portrayed in Ray's films. In 1987, he made on his father,.
Ray's last three films, made after his recovery and with medical strictures in place, were shot mostly indoors, and have a distinctive style. They have more dialogue than his earlier films and are often regarded as inferior to his earlier body of work. The first, (An Enemy of the People) is an adaptation of the, and considered the weakest of the three. Ray recovered some of his form in his 1990 film (Branches of the Tree). In it, an old man, who has lived a life of honesty, comes to learn of the corruption of three of his sons. The final scene shows the father finding solace only in the companionship of his fourth son, who is uncorrupted but mentally ill. Ray's last film, (The Stranger), is lighter in mood but not in theme. When a long-lost uncle arrives to visit his niece in Calcutta, he arouses suspicion as to his motive. This provokes far-ranging questions in the film about civilisation.
In 1992, Ray's health deteriorated due to heart complications. He was admitted to a hospital, but never recovered. The awarded him an. Ray is the first and the only Indian, yet, to receive the honor. Twenty-four days before his death, Ray accepted the award in a gravely ill condition, calling it the "Best achievement of [his] movie-making career." He died on 23 April 1992.
Satyajit Ray considered script-writing to be an integral part of direction. Initially he refused to make a film in any language other than. In his two non-Bengali feature films, he wrote the script in English; translators interpreted it in Hindi or Urdu under Ray's supervision. Ray's eye for detail was matched by that of his art director. His influence on the early films was so important that Ray would always write scripts in English before creating a Bengali version, so that the non-Bengali Chandragupta would be able to read it. The craft of garnered praise for the cinematography of Ray's films. A number of critics thought that his departure from Ray's crew lowered the quality of in the following films. Though Ray openly praised Mitra, his single-mindedness in taking over operation of the camera after Charulata caused Mitra to stop working for him after 1966. Mitra developed "bounce lighting", a technique to reflect light from cloth to create a diffused, realistic light even on a set. Ray acknowledged his debts to and of the for introducing new technical and cinematic innovations.
Ray's regular film editor was, but the director usually dictated the editing while Datta did the actual work. Because of financial reasons and Ray's meticulous planning, his films were mostly cut in-camera (apart from Pather Panchali). At the beginning of his career, Ray worked with, including,, and. He found that their first loyalty was to musical traditions, and not to his film. He had a greater understanding of Western classical forms, which he wanted to use for his films set in an urban milieu. Starting with Teen Kanya, Ray began to compose his own scores.
He used actors of diverse backgrounds, from famous film stars to people who had never seen a film (as in Aparajito). and others have lauded him as the best director of children, pointing out memorable performances in the roles of Apu and Durga (Pather Panchali), Ratan (Postmaster) and Mukul (Sonar Kella). Depending on the talent or experience of the actor, Ray varied the intensity of his direction, from virtually nothing with actors such as, to using the actor as a puppet ( as young Apu or Sharmila Tagore as Aparna). Actors who had worked for Ray praised his customary trust but said he could also treat incompetence with total contempt. With full of admiration of his cinematic style and impeccable craft, British Film Academy Director Roger Manvell had said, “In the restrained style he has adopted, Ray has become a master of technique. He takes his timing from the nature of the people and their environment; his camera is the intent, unobtrusive observer of reactions; his editing the discreet, economical transition from one value to the next." Though a master technician and a superb craftsman, Ray always credited life to be the best kind of inspiration for a popular medium like cinema. In his own words, "For a popular medium, the best kind of inspiration should derive from life and have its roots in it. No amount of technical polish can make up for artificiality of the theme and the dishonesty of treatment."
Ray created two popular fictional characters in Bengali children's literature—, a detective, and, a scientist. The Feluda stories are narrated by Topesh Ranjan Mitra aka Topse, his teenage cousin, something of a to Feluda's. The science fictions of Shonku are presented as a diary discovered after the scientist had mysteriously disappeared. Ray also wrote a collection of named , which includes a translation of 's "". He wrote a collection of humorous stories of in Bengali.
His short stories were published as collections of 12 stories, in which the overall title played with the word twelve (for example Aker pitthe dui, or literally "Two on top of one"). Ray's interest in puzzles and puns is reflected in his stories. Ray's short stories give full rein to his interest in the macabre, in suspense and other aspects that he avoided in film, making for an interesting psychological study. Most of his writings have been translated into English. Most of his screenplays have been published in Bengali in the literary journal Eksan. Ray wrote an autobiography about his childhood years, (1982), translated to English as Childhood Days.
Ray penned his experiences during the period when he filmed the Apu Trilogy in his memoirs titled.
He also wrote essays on film, published as the collections: (1976), (1976), and (1979). During the mid-1990s, Ray's film essays and an anthology of short stories were also published in English in the West. is an anthology of film criticism by Ray. The book contains articles and personal journal excerpts. The book is presented in two sections: Ray first discusses, before turning his attention toward Hollywood, specific filmmakers ( and ), and movements such as. His book was published in translation in 2006 as Speaking of Films. It contains a compact description of his philosophy of different aspects of the cinemas.
Ray as calligrapher
Satyajit Ray designed four typefaces for roman script named Ray Roman, Ray Bizarre, Daphnis, and Holiday Script, apart from numerous Bengali ones for the magazine. Ray Roman and Ray Bizarre won an international competition in 1971. In certain circles of Calcutta, Ray continued to be known as an eminent graphic designer, well into his film career. Ray illustrated all his books and designed covers for them, as well as creating all publicity material for his films, i.e., Ray's artistic playing with the Bengali graphemes was also revealed in the cine posters and cine promo-brochures' covers. He also designed covers of several books by other authors. In his calligraphic technique there are deep impacts of: (a) Artistic pattern of European musical staff notation in the graphemic syntagms; (b) ("ritual painting" mainly practiced by Bengali women at the time of religious festival; the term denotes 'to coat with'. Generally categorized as "Folk"-Art cf. in Ray's graphemes representations.
Thus, so-called division between classical and folk art is blurred in Ray's representation of Bengali graphemes. The three-tier X-height of Bengali graphemes was presented in a manner of musical map and the contours, curves in between horizontal and vertical meeting-point, follow the patterns of alpana. It is also noticed that the metamorphosis of graphemes (This might be designated as "Archewriting") as a living object/subject in Ray's positive manipulation of Bengali graphemes.
Critical and popular response
Ray's work has been described as full of and universality, and of a deceptive simplicity with deep underlying complexity. The Japanese director said, "Not to have seen the cinema of Ray means existing in the world without seeing the sun or the moon." But his detractors find his films glacially slow, moving like a "majestic snail." Some find his humanism simple-minded, and his work ; they criticize him for lacking the new modes of expression or experimentation found in works of Ray's contemporaries, such as. As wrote, some critics believe that Ray assumes that viewers "can be interested in a film that simply dwells in its characters, rather than one that imposes dramatic patterns on their lives." Ray said he could do nothing about the slow pace. defended him by saying that Ray's films were not slow, "His work can be described as flowing composedly, like a big river".
Critics have often compared Ray to artists in the cinema and other media, such as,,, or. The writer compared a scene in Shatranj Ki Khiladi (The Chess Players) to a Shakespearean play; he wrote, "only three hundred words are spoken but goodness! – terrific things happen." Even critics who did not like the of Ray's films generally acknowledged his ability to encompass a whole culture with all its nuances. Ray's obituary in included the question, "Who else can compete?" His work was promoted in France by The Studio des Ursuline cinema. With full of positive admiration for most of Ray's fims, celebrated film critic had cited "Apu Triology" among the great movies.
Praising his contribution to the world of cinema, mentions: "His work is in the company of that of living contemporaries like Ingmar Bergman, Akira Kurosawa and Federico Fellini." Director of classics like "The Godafther" and "Apocalypse Now", Francis Ford Coppola cited him (Ray) to be a major influence in life. With deep words of praise for Ray's 1960 classic "Devi", what he had considered to be his best work and a "cinematic milestone"; he further admitted to know of Indian cinema through Ray's works. Recently, on a visit to India, celebrated filmmaker expresses his admiration for Ray's first film, "Pather Panchali". Nolan expressed, "I have had the pleasure of watching [Satyajit] Ray’s Pather Panchali recently, which I hadn’t seen before. I think it is one of the best films ever made. It is an extraordinary piece of work." Political ideologues took issue with Ray's work. In a public debate during the 1960s, Ray and the filmmaker engaged in an argument. Sen criticised him for casting a matinée idol such as, whom he considered a compromise. Ray said that Sen only attacked "easy targets", i.e. the Bengali middle-classes. However Ray himself has made movies on Bengali middle class in films like and set during the period of the in. Advocates of socialism said that Ray was not "committed" to the cause of the nation's downtrodden classes; some critics accused him of glorifying poverty in Pather Panchali and (Distant Thunder) through lyricism and aesthetics. They said he provided no solution to conflicts in the stories, and was unable to overcome his background. During the movements in the 1970s, agitators once came close to causing physical harm to his son, Sandip. Early in 1980, Ray was criticised by an Indian and former actress, who accused Ray of "exporting poverty." She wanted him to make films to represent "Modern India."
Satyajit Ray is a cultural icon in India and in Bengali communities worldwide. Following his death, the city of Calcutta came to a virtual standstill, as hundreds of thousands of people gathered around his house to pay their last respects. Satyajit Ray's influence has been widespread and deep in ; a number of Bengali directors, including, and as well as,, and from Hindi cinema in India, and in Bangladesh, and in England, have been influenced by his film craft. Across the spectrum, filmmakers such as, and have acknowledged his seminal contribution to Indian cinema. Beyond India, filmmakers such as,,,,,, François Truffaut,,,, and many other noted filmmakers from all over the world have been influenced by his cinematic style, with many others such as praising his work.'s 1995 film had a final scene that repeated that of Apur Sansar. 's 2005 work was a loose remake of Charulata. Other references to Ray films are found, for example, in recent works such as, the of. According to Michael Sragow of, the "youthful that have flooded art houses since the mid-fifties owe a tremendous debt to the ". The trilogy also introduced the technique. (1962) introduced a narrative structure that resembles later. (1972) helped pioneer and X-ray digression techniques. Together with, Ray was the first Indian film figure to be featured on a foreign stamp ().
Iranian master filmmaker, has expressed his deep admiration to Satyajit Ray. While discussing the inspirations for making his first feature film on India, which is a foreign land and culture for the director; Majidi expressed, "I have learned a lot about India based on the works of remarkable Indian director Satyajit Ray so it was my dream to make a film in his land. His view point is very valuable to me and I love whatever he has done, so one of the main reasons behind making this film is my admiration for Satyajit Ray and his work".
Many literary works include references to Ray or his work, including 's and 's. 's contains fish characters named Goopy and Bagha, a tribute to Ray's fantasy film. In 1993, established the Satyajit Ray Film and Study collection, and in 1995, the Government of India set up for studies related to film. In 2007, the BBC declared that two Feluda stories would be made into radio programs. During the, a regular "Satyajit Ray Award" is given to a first-time feature director whose film best captures "the artistry, compassion and humanity of Ray's vision". has claimed Ray as an influence on his work; his 2007 film,, set in India, is dedicated to Ray. Ray also a graphic designer, designed most of his film posters, combining folk-art and calligraphy to create themes ranging from mysterious, surreal to comical; an exhibition his posters was held at in 2013.
In 2016, during the shooting of the film Double Feluda, Satyajit's only son, Sandip Ray, filmed his father's famous library.
The preserved a number of Satyajit Ray's films, in 2001, in 1996, in 1996, in 1996, in 1996, in 2003, in 1996, in 1996, in 2007, in 2005, in 1996, in 2005, in 2004, in 2007, in 1996, in 2001, in 2010, in 2007, in 1996. Other Satyajit Ray films preserved by the Academy include the short film Two in 2006.
Awards, honours and recognitions
Ray received many awards, including 32 by the, and awards at international film festivals. At the in 1979, he was awarded with the Honorable Prize for the contribution to cinema. At the, he was one of only four filmmakers to win the more than once and holds the record for the most number of nominations, with seven. At the, where he had previously won a for (1956), he was awarded the Golden Lion Honorary Award in 1982. That same year, he received an honorary "Hommage à Satyajit Ray" award at the.
Ray is the second film personality after to have been awarded an honorary by. He was awarded the in 1985 and the by the in 1987. The awarded him the in 1965 and the highest civilian honour,, shortly before his death. The awarded Ray an in for Lifetime Achievement. It was one of his favourite actresses,, who represented the Academy on that day in. Ray, unable to attend the ceremony due to his illness, gave his acceptance speech to the Academy via live video feed from the hospital bed. In 1992 he was posthumously awarded the Akira Kurosawa Award for Lifetime Achievement in Directing at the ; it was accepted on his behalf by actress.
In 1992, the Critics' Top Ten Poll ranked Ray at No. 7 in its list of "Top 10 Directors" of all time, making him the highest-ranking in the poll. In 2002, the Sight & Sound critics' and directors' poll ranked Ray at No. 22 in its list of all-time greatest directors, thus making him the fourth highest-ranking Asian filmmaker in the poll. In 1996, magazine ranked Ray at No. 25 in its "50 Greatest Directors" list. In 2007, magazine included Ray in its "100 Greatest Film Directors Ever" list.
- . Satyajitray.org. from the original on 11 August 2003. Retrieved 14 August 2003.
- Tmh (2007).. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. .
- Robinson, W. Anderson.. Encyclopædia Britannica. from the original on 26 December 2015.
- . Daily News and Analysis. 2 May 2015. from the original on 3 May 2015.
- , p. 36
- Roger Ames, Thomas Kasulis (1998). Self as Image in Asian Theory and Practice. State University of New York press. p. 308. Satyajit Ray was born into a well known family of littérateurs and social reformers in 1921. Since the sixteenth century, the Rays had an east bengali connection through their landed estates in Mymensingh, now in Bangaladesh. Unlike a majority of Bengali Kayastha who are Shaktos, the Rays were Vaisnvas.
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- Arup Kr De, "Ties that Bind" by The Statesman, Calcutta, 27 April 2008. Quote: "Satyajit Ray had an unconventional marriage. He married Bijoya (born 1917), youngest daughter of his eldest maternal uncle, Charuchandra Das, in 1948 in a secret ceremony in Bombay after a long romantic relationship that had begun around the time he left college in 1940. The marriage was reconfirmed in Calcutta the next year at a traditional religious ceremony."
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- ^, pp. 74–90
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