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Animation is a method in which pictures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent to be photographed and exhibited on. Today most animations are made with (CGI). can be very detailed, while can be used for stylistic reasons, low bandwidth or faster real-time renderings. Other common animation methods apply a technique to two and three-dimensional objects like, or. The stop motion technique where live actors are used as a frame-by-frame subject is known as.

Commonly the effect of animation is achieved by a rapid succession of sequential images that minimally differ from each other. The illusion—as in motion pictures in general—is thought to rely on the and, but the exact causes are still uncertain. mechanical animation media that rely on the rapid display of sequential images include the,,, and film. and are popular electronic animation media that originally were and now operate. For display on the computer, techniques like and were developed.

Apart from,, animated gifs and other media dedicated to the display moving images, animation is also heavily used for, and.

The physical movement of image parts through simple mechanics in for instance the moving images in shows can also be considered animation. Mechanical animation of actual robotic devices is known as Animatronics.

are artists who specialize in creating animation.



The word "animation" stems from the Latin "animationem" (nominative "animatio"), noun of action from past participle stem of "animare", meaning "the action of imparting life". The primary meaning of the English word is "liveliness" and has been in use much longer than the meaning of "moving image medium".


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The history of animation started long before the development of. Humans have probably attempted to depict motion as far back as the period. and the offered popular shows with moving images as the result of manipulation by hand and/or some minor mechanics.

A 5,200-year old pottery bowl discovered in,, has five sequential images painted around it that seem to show phases of a goat leaping up to nip at a tree. In 1833, the introduced the principle of modern animation, which would also provide the basis for the (1866), the (1868), the (1877) and cinematography.

A projecting, 1882, here shown superimposing an animated figure on a separately projected background scene

further developed his projection praxinoscope into the with transparent hand-painted colorful pictures in a long perforated strip wound between two spools, patented in December 1888. From 28 October 1892 to March 1900 Reynaud gave over 12,800 shows to a total of over 500.000 visitors at the in Paris. His Pantomimes Lumineuses series of animated films each contained 300 to 700 frames that were manipulated back and forth to last 10 to 15 minutes per film. Piano music, song and some dialogue were performed live, while some sound effects were synchronized with an electromagnet.

When film became a common medium some manufacturers of optical toys adapted small magic lanterns into toy film projectors for short loops of film. By 1902, they were producing many film loops, usually by tracing live-action film footage (much like the later technique).

Some early filmmakers, including,, and experimented with stop-motion animation, possibly since around 1899. Blackton's The Haunted Hotel (1907) was the first huge success that baffled audiences with objects apparently moving by themselves and inspired other filmmakers to try the technique for themselves.

J. Stuart Blackton also experimented with animation drawn on blackboards and some in (1906).

In 1908, 's was released with a white-on-black chalkline look created with from black ink drawings on white paper. The film largely consists of a moving about and encountering all kinds of objects, including a wine bottle that transforms into a flower.

Inspired by Émile Cohl's stop-motion film Les allumettes animées [Animated Matches] (1908), started making his influential puppet animations in 1910.

's (1911) showcased very detailed drawings. His (1914) was an also an early example of character development in drawn animation.

During the 1910s, the production of animated short films typically referred to as "", became an industry of its own and cartoon shorts were produced for showing in movie theaters. The most successful producer at the time was, who, along with animator, patented the process that dominated the animation industry for the rest of the decade.

Italian-Argentine cartoonist showing the cut and articulated figure of his satirical character El Peludo (based on President ) patented in 1916 for the realization of his movies, including the world's first animated feature film.

(Spanish: "The Apostle") was a 1917 Argentine animated film utilizing cutout animation, and the world's first animated feature film. Unfortunately, a fire that destroyed producer Federico Valle's film studio incinerated the only known copy of El Apóstol, and it is now considered a.

The earliest extant feature-length animated film is (1926) made by director and her collaborators and.

In 1932, the first short animated film created entirely with (using red/green/blue photographic filters and three strips of film) was 's, directed by. But, the first feature film that was done with this technique, apart from the movie The Vanities Fair (1935), by Rouben Mamoulian, was "", also by Walt Disney.

In 1958, released, the first half hour television program to feature only in animation. released that same year. Television significantly decreased public attention to the animated shorts being shown in theaters.

has become popular since (1995), the first feature-length animated film completely made using this technique.

In 2008, the animation market was worth US.4 billion. Animation as an art and industry continues to thrive as of the mid-2010s because well-made animated projects can find audiences across borders and in all. Animated feature-length films returned the highest (around 52%) of all in the 2004–2013 timeframe.


Traditional animation[]

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Traditional animation (also called cel animation or hand-drawn animation) was the process used for most animated films of the 20th century. The individual frames of a traditionally animated film are photographs of drawings, first drawn on paper. To create the illusion of movement, each drawing differs slightly from the one before it. The animators' drawings are traced or photocopied onto transparent acetate sheets called, which are filled in with paints in assigned colors or tones on the side opposite the line drawings. The completed character cels are photographed one-by-one against a painted background by a onto motion picture film.

The traditional cel animation process became obsolete by the beginning of the 21st century. Today, animators' drawings and the backgrounds are either scanned into or drawn directly into a computer system. Various software programs are used to color the drawings and simulate camera movement and effects. The final animated piece is output to one of several delivery media, including traditional and newer media with. The "look" of traditional cel animation is still preserved, and the ' work has remained essentially the same over the past 70 years. Some animation producers have used the term "tradigital" (a play on the words "traditional" and "digital") to describe cel animation that uses significant computer technology.

Examples of traditionally animated feature films include (United States, 1940), (United Kingdom, 1954), (Italy, 1998), and (British-French, 2010). Traditionally animated films produced with the aid of computer technology include (US, 1994), (US, 1998), (Japan, 1988), (Japan, 2001), (France, 2003), and (Irish-French-Belgian, 2009).

Full animation[]

Full animation refers to the process of producing high-quality traditionally animated films that regularly use detailed drawings and plausible movement, having a smooth animation. Fully animated films can be made in a variety of styles, from more realistically animated works like those produced by the (,,, ) to the more 'cartoon' styles of the. Many of the are examples of full animation, as are non-Disney works, (US, 1982), (US, 1999), and (Spain, 2007). Fully animated films are animated at 24 frames per second, with a combination of animation on ones and twos, meaning that drawings can be held for one frame out of 24 or two frames out of 24.

Limited animation[]

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involves the use of less detailed or more stylized drawings and methods of movement usually a choppy or "skippy" movement animation. Limited animation uses fewer drawings per second, thereby limiting the fluidity of the animation. This is a more economic technique. Pioneered by the artists at the American studio, limited animation can be used as a method of stylized artistic expression, as in (US, 1951), (UK, 1968), and certain produced in Japan. Its primary use, however, has been in producing cost-effective animated content for media for television (the work of,, and other TV animation studios) and later ().


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is a technique patented by in 1917 where animators trace live-action movement, frame by frame. The source film can be directly copied from actors' outlines into animated drawings, as in (US, 1978), or used in a stylized and expressive manner, as in (US, 2001) and (US, 2006). Some other examples are (US, 1983), (1981), and (2013).


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is a technique combining hand-drawn characters into live action shots or live action actors into animated shots. One of the earlier uses was in when Koko was drawn over live action footage. Other examples include (Italy, 1976), (US, 1988), (US, 1996) and (US, 2001).

Stop motion animation[]

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Stop-motion animation is used to describe animation created by physically manipulating real-world objects and photographing them one frame of film at a time to create the illusion of movement. There are many different types of stop-motion animation, usually named after the medium used to create the animation. Computer software is widely available to create this type of animation; traditional stop motion animation is usually less expensive but more time-consuming to produce than current computer animation.

  • typically involves stop-motion puppet figures interacting in a constructed environment, in contrast to real-world interaction in model animation. The puppets generally have an inside of them to keep them still and steady to constrain their motion to particular joints. Examples include (France, 1937), (US, 1993), (US, 2005), (US, 2009), the films of and the adult animated sketch-comedy television series (US, 2005–present).
    • , created using techniques developed by, are puppet-animated films that typically use a different version of a puppet for different frames, rather than simply manipulating one existing puppet.
A clay animation scene from a television commercial
  • , or animation (often called claymation, which, however, is a name), uses figures made of clay or a similar malleable material to create stop-motion animation. The figures may have an or wire frame inside, similar to the related puppet animation (below), that can be manipulated to pose the figures. Alternatively, the figures may be made entirely of clay, in the films of, where clay creatures morph into a variety of different shapes. Examples of clay-animated works include (US, 1957–1967), (Italy, 1974-2005), shorts (UK, 1977–2000), shorts (UK, as of 1989), 's (, 1982), (UK, 1984). Films include, and.
    • , Strata-cut animation is most commonly a form of clay animation in which a long bread-like "loaf" of clay, internally packed tight and loaded with varying imagery, is sliced into thin sheets, with the animation camera taking a frame of the end of the loaf for each cut, eventually revealing the movement of the internal images within.
  • is a type of stop-motion animation produced by moving two-dimensional pieces of material paper or cloth. Examples include 's animated sequences from (UK, 1969–1974); (France/Czechoslovakia, 1973) ; (Russia, 1979), The pilot episode of the adult television sitcom series (and sometimes in episodes) of (US, 1997) and the music video, from Verona Riots band (produced by Alberto Serrano and Nívola Uyá, Spain 2014).
  • refers to stop-motion animation created to interact with and exist as a part of a live-action world. Intercutting, effects and split screens are often employed to blend stop-motion characters or objects with live actors and settings. Examples include the work of, as seen in films, (1963), and the work of on films, (1933).
  • refers to the use of regular inanimate objects in stop-motion animation, as opposed to specially created items.
    • uses non-drawn flat visual graphic material (photographs, newspaper clippings, magazines, etc.), which are sometimes manipulated frame-by-frame to create movement. At other times, the graphics remain stationary, while the stop-motion camera is moved to create on-screen action.
    • are a subgenre of object animation involving using or other similar brick toys to make an animation. These have had a recent boost in popularity with the advent of video sharing sites, and the availability of cheap cameras and animation software.
  • involves the use of live humans as stop motion characters. This allows for a number of surreal effects, including disappearances and reappearances, allowing people to appear to slide across the ground, and other effects. Examples of pixilation include and shorts, and the -winning by.

Computer animation[]

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Computer animation encompasses a variety of techniques, the unifying factor being that the animation is created digitally on a computer.2D animation techniques tend to focus on image manipulation while 3D techniques usually build virtual worlds in which characters and objects move and interact.3D animation can create images that seem real to the viewer.

2D animation[]

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A 2D animation of two circles joined by a chain

figures are created or edited on the computer using 2D and 2D. This includes automated computerized versions of traditional animation techniques,, and interpolated rotoscoping.

2D animation has many applications, including,, and. are in the form of an file of which part is animated.

Final line advection animation is a technique used in 2D animation, to give artists and animators more influence and control over the final product as everything is done within the same department. Speaking about using this approach in, John Kahrs said that "Our animators can change things, actually erase away the CG underlayer if they want, and change the profile of the arm."

3D animation[]

Main articles: and

3D animation is digitally modeled and manipulated by an animator. The animator usually starts by creating a 3D to manipulate. A mesh typically includes many vertices that are connected by edges and faces, which give the visual appearance of form to a 3D object or 3D environment. Sometimes, the mesh is given an internal digital skeletal structure called an that can be used to control the mesh by weighting the vertices. This process is called rigging and can be used in conjunction with keyframes to create movement.

Other techniques can be applied, mathematical functions (e.g., gravity, particle simulations), simulated fur or hair, and effects, fire and water simulations. These techniques fall under the category of 3D dynamics.

3D terms[]
  • is used to mimic traditional animation using computer software. Shading looks stark, with less blending of colors. Examples include (2007, France), (1999, United States), (Fox, 1999) (2007, Japan), (2002, Japan), (2017, Japan)
  • – Films created by screen capturing in video games and virtual worlds. The term originated from the software introduction in the 1980s, as well as the 1990s recordings of the video game.
  • is used when live-action actors wear special suits that allow computers to copy their movements into CG characters. Examples include (2004, US), (2007, US), (2009, US), (2011, US) (2014, India)
  • is used primarily for animation that attempts to resemble real life, using advanced rendering that mimics in detail skin, plants, water, fire, clouds, etc. Examples include (2009, US), (2010, US)

Mechanical animation[]

  • is the use of to create machines that seem animate rather than robotic.
    • is a form of animation, combined with 3-D animation, created by for shows and attractions at Disney theme parks move and make noise (generally a recorded speech or song). They are fixed to whatever supports them. They can sit and stand, and they cannot walk. An Audio-Animatron is different from an -type robot in that it uses prerecorded movements and sounds, rather than responding to external stimuli. In 2009, Disney created an interactive version of the technology called Autonomatronics.
    • Linear Animation Generator is a form of animation by using static picture frames installed in a tunnel or a shaft. The animation illusion is created by putting the viewer in a linear motion, parallel to the installed picture frames. The concept and the technical solution were invented in 2007 by Mihai Girlovan in Romania.
  • is a type of animation created by the makers of the television series in which characters/props are thrown, or chucked from off camera or wiggled around to simulate talking by unseen hands.
  • The used mechanical slides to project moving images, probably since Christiaan Huygens invented this early image projector in 1659.

Other animation styles, techniques, and approaches[]

  • Hydrotechnics: a technique that includes lights, water, fire, fog, and lasers, with high-definition projections on mist screens.
  • : a technique where footage is produced by creating the images directly on, for example by, and.
  • : a technique for making animated films by manipulating slow drying on sheets of glass, for example by.
  • Erasure animation: a technique using traditional 2D media, photographed over time as the artist manipulates the image. For example, is famous for his erasure films, and for his auteur technique of animating scratches on plaster.
  • : makes use of a screen filled with movable pins that can be moved in or out by pressing an object onto the screen. The screen is lit from the side so that the pins cast shadows. The technique has been used to create animated films with a range of textural effects difficult to achieve with traditional cel animation.
  • : sand is moved around on a back- or front-lighted piece of glass to create each frame for an animated film. This creates an interesting effect when animated because of the.
  • : a flip book (sometimes, especially in British English, called a flick book) is a book with a series of pictures that vary gradually from one page to the next, so that when the pages are turned rapidly, the pictures appear to animate by simulating motion or some other change. Flip books are often illustrated books for children, they also be geared towards adults and employ a series of photographs rather than drawings. Flip books are not always separate books, they appear as an added feature in ordinary books or magazines, often in the page corners.Software packages and websites are also available that convert digital video files into custom-made flip books.


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An animator is an artist who creates a visual sequence (or audio-visual if added sound) of multiple sequential images that generate the illusion of movement, that is, an animation. Animations are currently in many areas of technology and video, such as,, or the. Generally, these works require the collaboration of several animators. The methods to create these images depend on the animator and style that one wants to achieve (with images generated by computer, manually...).

Animators can be divided into animators of characters (artists who are specialized in the movements, dialogue and acting of the characters) and animators of special effects (for example vehicles, machinery or natural phenomena such as water, snow, rain).


The creation of non-trivial animation works (i.e., longer than a few seconds) has developed as a form of, with certain unique aspects. Traits common to both live-action and animated are labor-intensity and high production costs.

The most important difference is that once a film is in the production phase, the of one more shot is higher for animated films than live-action films. It is relatively easy for a director to ask for one more during of a live-action film, but every take on an animated film must be manually rendered by animators (although the task of rendering slightly different takes has been made less tedious by modern computer animation). It is pointless for a studio to pay the salaries of dozens of animators to spend weeks creating a visually dazzling five-minute scene if that scene fails to effectively advance the plot of the film. Thus, animation studios starting with Disney began the practice in the 1930s of maintaining story departments where develop every single scene through, then handing the film over to the animators only after the production team is satisfied that all the scenes make sense as a whole. While live-action films are now also storyboarded, they enjoy more latitude to depart from storyboards (i.e., real-time improvisation).

Another problem unique to animation is the requirement to maintain a film's consistency from start to finish, even as films have grown longer and teams have grown larger. Animators, like all artists, necessarily have individual styles, but must subordinate their individuality in a consistent way to whatever style is employed on a particular film. Since the early 1980s, teams of about 500 to 600 people, of whom 50 to 70 are animators, typically have created feature-length animated films. It is relatively easy for two or three artists to match their styles; synchronizing those of dozens of artists is more difficult.

This problem is usually solved by having a separate group of visual development artists develop an overall look and palette for each film before animation begins. Character designers on the visual development team draw to show how each character should look like with different facial expressions, posed in different positions, and viewed from different angles. On traditionally animated projects, were often sculpted to further help the animators see how characters would look from different angles.

Unlike live-action films, animated films were traditionally developed beyond the synopsis stage through the storyboard format; the storyboard artists would then receive credit for writing the film. In the early 1960s, animation studios began hiring professional screenwriters to write screenplays (while also continuing to use story departments) and screenplays had become commonplace for animated films by the late 1980s.


Criticism of animation has been common in media and cinema since its inception. With its popularity, a large amount of criticism has arisen, especially animated feature-length films. Many concerns of cultural representation, psychological effects on children have been brought up around the animation industry, which has remained rather politically unchanged and stagnant since its inception into mainstream culture.

As with any other form of media, animation too has instituted awards for excellence in the field. The original awards for animation were presented by the for animated shorts from the year 1932, during the 5th function. The first winner of the was the short, a production by. The Academy Award for a feature-length animated motion picture was only instituted for the year 2001, and awarded during the 74th Academy Awards in 2002. It was won by the film, produced by and./ have produced the most films either to win or be nominated for the award. The list of both awards can be obtained here:

Several other countries have instituted an award for best animated feature film as part of their national film awards: (since 2008), (since 2006), (since 2011), (since 1981), (since 1989), (since 2007), (since 2006). Also since 2007, the has been awarded at the. Since 2009, the have awarded the.

The is another award presented for excellence in the field of animation. Unlike the Academy Awards, the Annie Awards are only received for achievements in the field of animation and not for any other field of technical and artistic endeavor. They were re-organized in 1992 to create a new field for Best Animated feature. The 1990s winners were dominated by Walt Disney, however, newer studios, led by Pixar & DreamWorks, have now begun to consistently vie for this award. The list of awardees is as follows:

See also[]



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External links[]


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